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Statûya Zimên û Polîtîkayên Partîyan li Kurdistana Iraqê. Mînakên Guhertoyên Behdînî û Hewramî

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, 303 - 316, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.35859/jms.2021.993360

Abstract

Ev xebat statûya du guhertoyên zimanî yên Kurdistana Iraqê dide ber hev: Behdînî û Hewramî. Hikumeta Heremî ya Kurdistanê (HHK) herdu guhertoyan wekî guhertoyên Kurdî dibîne. Lê, herçiqas herdu guhertoyan ji bo perwerdeya bi zimanê zikmakî û naskirina resmî hewl dabin jî, tenê Behdînî karîye mafên zimên bi dest bixe. Ji bo lêkolîna sedemêm muhtemel yên newekhevîya statûya van herdu guhertoyan, vê xebatê polîtîkaya krîtîk ya zimên (critical language policy) û nêrîna dîrokî ya sazûmanî (historical construction approach) bi kar anîne. Vê gotarê ev herdu guherto ji çend alîyan ve dane ber hev: wekî zimannasî, pêvajoya pêşketina dîrokî, kevneşopîya nivîskî, têgihîştin û tevger, mobîlîzasyona etnozimanî, demografî û rewşa sosyo-ekonomîk, û wekî dawî sîyaset û hêza sîyasî ya civatan.

References

  • Anonby. Erik / Sheyhohslami, Jaffer / Mohammadirad. Masud 2016. Kordestan province in the Atlas of the Languages of Iran. Paper presented at the 3th International Conference on Kurdish Linguistics. University of Amsterdam; August 25-26. 2016.
  • Ferguson. Gibson. 2006. Language planning and education. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Garvin. Paul L. 1993. A conceptual framework for the study of language standardization. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 100-101/1: 37-54.
  • Gellner. Ernest. 1983. Nations and nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Giles. Howard / Bourhis, Richard / Taylor. Donald. 1977. Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In: H. Giles. ed. Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press: 307-348
  • Hassanpour, Amir. 2012. The indivisibility of the nation and its linguistic divisions. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217: 49-73
  • Kultumame. 2009. Li Zaningeha Soran Kurmanci qedexe ye.http://www.kulturname.com/?p=3434&print=1 (2011/08/01)
  • KNN. 2015. April 04. Hewramîyekan bo sê serokatîyeke u hizbekan: Ta key berhest leberdem zimanekemanda [dedanên] [Hewramîmis to the three leadership and [political] parties. For how long do you want to create obstacles in front of our language). www.knnc.net/Drejey-hawaLaspx?id=43856&LinkID=4 (2016/09/05)
  • Kurdistan. 2004. Constitution of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. http://www.unpo.org/article/538. (2012/05/01)
  • Longmanç 1998. Longman dictionary of English language and culture. Essex: Longman.
  • Mackenzie. David. 2002 Gurâni. Encyclopedia İranica. Xl/4: 401-403
  • Mackenzie. David N. 1962. Kurdish dialect studies l. London: Oxford University Press.
  • May. Stephen. 2015. Language policy and political theory. In: D. C. Johnson / F. M. Hult. eds. Research methods in language policy and planning. A practical guide. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell: 45-55.
  • May. Stephen. 2008. Language and minority rights: Ethnicity, nationalism and the politics of language. London/New York: Routledge.
  • Mousazadeh, Fariborz / Faeq. Ne’man. 2016. Kalasu yoamu Horami (first grade Hawrami] Sulaimaniyah: Piramerd.
  • Sheyhohslami. Jaffer. 2015. Language varieties of the Kurds. In: W Taucher / M. Vogl / P. Webinger. eds. The Kurds. History, religion, language, politics. Vienna: Austrian Federal Ministry of the Intenor: 30-51.
  • Sheyholislami, Jaffer. 2012. Language policy and planning: Identity and rights in Iraqi Kurdistan. In: G. Kunsang / A. Snavely / T. Shaky. eds. Minority language in today's global society Vol. 2 New York: Trace Foundation: 106-128.
  • Sheyhohslami, Jaffer / Hassanpour, Amir / Skutnabb-Kangas. Tove. eds. 2012. The Kurdish Linguistic Landscape: Vitality. Linguicide and Resistance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217.
  • Sheyholislami. Jaffer. 2011. Kurdish identity, discourse and new media. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Sonntag, Selma K / Cardinal, L. 2015. State traditions and language regimes: A historical institutionalism approach to language policy. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, European and Regional Studies. 8/1: 5-21.
  • Tollefson, James. 2006. Critical theory in language policy. In: Thomas Ricento. ed. An introduction to language policy: Theory and method. Oxford. Blackwell: 42-59.
  • White. Paul. 1991. Geographical aspects of minority language situations in Italy. In: Collin H. Williams, ed. Linguistic minorities, society, and territory. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters: 44-65.
  • Wright, Sue. 2007. The right to speak one’s own language. Reflections on practice. Language Policy. 6, 323-330.

Dil Statüsü ve Iraq Kürdistanında Parti Politikaları: Behdinî ve Hewrami Örnekleri

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, 303 - 316, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.35859/jms.2021.993360

Abstract

Dil Statüsü ve Iraq Kürdistanında Parti Politikaları: Behdinî ve Hewrami Örnekleri

References

  • Anonby. Erik / Sheyhohslami, Jaffer / Mohammadirad. Masud 2016. Kordestan province in the Atlas of the Languages of Iran. Paper presented at the 3th International Conference on Kurdish Linguistics. University of Amsterdam; August 25-26. 2016.
  • Ferguson. Gibson. 2006. Language planning and education. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Garvin. Paul L. 1993. A conceptual framework for the study of language standardization. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 100-101/1: 37-54.
  • Gellner. Ernest. 1983. Nations and nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Giles. Howard / Bourhis, Richard / Taylor. Donald. 1977. Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In: H. Giles. ed. Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press: 307-348
  • Hassanpour, Amir. 2012. The indivisibility of the nation and its linguistic divisions. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217: 49-73
  • Kultumame. 2009. Li Zaningeha Soran Kurmanci qedexe ye.http://www.kulturname.com/?p=3434&print=1 (2011/08/01)
  • KNN. 2015. April 04. Hewramîyekan bo sê serokatîyeke u hizbekan: Ta key berhest leberdem zimanekemanda [dedanên] [Hewramîmis to the three leadership and [political] parties. For how long do you want to create obstacles in front of our language). www.knnc.net/Drejey-hawaLaspx?id=43856&LinkID=4 (2016/09/05)
  • Kurdistan. 2004. Constitution of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. http://www.unpo.org/article/538. (2012/05/01)
  • Longmanç 1998. Longman dictionary of English language and culture. Essex: Longman.
  • Mackenzie. David. 2002 Gurâni. Encyclopedia İranica. Xl/4: 401-403
  • Mackenzie. David N. 1962. Kurdish dialect studies l. London: Oxford University Press.
  • May. Stephen. 2015. Language policy and political theory. In: D. C. Johnson / F. M. Hult. eds. Research methods in language policy and planning. A practical guide. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell: 45-55.
  • May. Stephen. 2008. Language and minority rights: Ethnicity, nationalism and the politics of language. London/New York: Routledge.
  • Mousazadeh, Fariborz / Faeq. Ne’man. 2016. Kalasu yoamu Horami (first grade Hawrami] Sulaimaniyah: Piramerd.
  • Sheyhohslami. Jaffer. 2015. Language varieties of the Kurds. In: W Taucher / M. Vogl / P. Webinger. eds. The Kurds. History, religion, language, politics. Vienna: Austrian Federal Ministry of the Intenor: 30-51.
  • Sheyholislami, Jaffer. 2012. Language policy and planning: Identity and rights in Iraqi Kurdistan. In: G. Kunsang / A. Snavely / T. Shaky. eds. Minority language in today's global society Vol. 2 New York: Trace Foundation: 106-128.
  • Sheyhohslami, Jaffer / Hassanpour, Amir / Skutnabb-Kangas. Tove. eds. 2012. The Kurdish Linguistic Landscape: Vitality. Linguicide and Resistance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217.
  • Sheyholislami. Jaffer. 2011. Kurdish identity, discourse and new media. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Sonntag, Selma K / Cardinal, L. 2015. State traditions and language regimes: A historical institutionalism approach to language policy. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, European and Regional Studies. 8/1: 5-21.
  • Tollefson, James. 2006. Critical theory in language policy. In: Thomas Ricento. ed. An introduction to language policy: Theory and method. Oxford. Blackwell: 42-59.
  • White. Paul. 1991. Geographical aspects of minority language situations in Italy. In: Collin H. Williams, ed. Linguistic minorities, society, and territory. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters: 44-65.
  • Wright, Sue. 2007. The right to speak one’s own language. Reflections on practice. Language Policy. 6, 323-330.

Language Statues and Party Politics in Kurdistan-Iraq. The Case of Badini and Hawrami Varieties

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, 303 - 316, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.35859/jms.2021.993360

Abstract

This paper compares the status two language varieties from Kurdistan Iraq: Badini and Hawrami. Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) views both varieties as Kurdish. Yet, although both varieties have strived for mother tongue-education and some sort of official recognition, only Badini has been successfully in achieving language rights. To investigate possible reasons for this imbalance in the statues of the two varieties the paper deploys critical language policy and the historical construction approach. The paper compares the two varieties with respect to several factors such as linguistics, historical development, literary tradition, perception and attitude, ethnolinguistic mobilization, demography and socio economic situation, and finally politics and the community’s political power. The most important factor favouring Badini seems to be its speakers significant political and linguistic ties with one of the most powerful political parties , Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP).

References

  • Anonby. Erik / Sheyhohslami, Jaffer / Mohammadirad. Masud 2016. Kordestan province in the Atlas of the Languages of Iran. Paper presented at the 3th International Conference on Kurdish Linguistics. University of Amsterdam; August 25-26. 2016.
  • Ferguson. Gibson. 2006. Language planning and education. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Garvin. Paul L. 1993. A conceptual framework for the study of language standardization. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 100-101/1: 37-54.
  • Gellner. Ernest. 1983. Nations and nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Giles. Howard / Bourhis, Richard / Taylor. Donald. 1977. Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In: H. Giles. ed. Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press: 307-348
  • Hassanpour, Amir. 2012. The indivisibility of the nation and its linguistic divisions. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217: 49-73
  • Kultumame. 2009. Li Zaningeha Soran Kurmanci qedexe ye.http://www.kulturname.com/?p=3434&print=1 (2011/08/01)
  • KNN. 2015. April 04. Hewramîyekan bo sê serokatîyeke u hizbekan: Ta key berhest leberdem zimanekemanda [dedanên] [Hewramîmis to the three leadership and [political] parties. For how long do you want to create obstacles in front of our language). www.knnc.net/Drejey-hawaLaspx?id=43856&LinkID=4 (2016/09/05)
  • Kurdistan. 2004. Constitution of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. http://www.unpo.org/article/538. (2012/05/01)
  • Longmanç 1998. Longman dictionary of English language and culture. Essex: Longman.
  • Mackenzie. David. 2002 Gurâni. Encyclopedia İranica. Xl/4: 401-403
  • Mackenzie. David N. 1962. Kurdish dialect studies l. London: Oxford University Press.
  • May. Stephen. 2015. Language policy and political theory. In: D. C. Johnson / F. M. Hult. eds. Research methods in language policy and planning. A practical guide. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell: 45-55.
  • May. Stephen. 2008. Language and minority rights: Ethnicity, nationalism and the politics of language. London/New York: Routledge.
  • Mousazadeh, Fariborz / Faeq. Ne’man. 2016. Kalasu yoamu Horami (first grade Hawrami] Sulaimaniyah: Piramerd.
  • Sheyhohslami. Jaffer. 2015. Language varieties of the Kurds. In: W Taucher / M. Vogl / P. Webinger. eds. The Kurds. History, religion, language, politics. Vienna: Austrian Federal Ministry of the Intenor: 30-51.
  • Sheyholislami, Jaffer. 2012. Language policy and planning: Identity and rights in Iraqi Kurdistan. In: G. Kunsang / A. Snavely / T. Shaky. eds. Minority language in today's global society Vol. 2 New York: Trace Foundation: 106-128.
  • Sheyhohslami, Jaffer / Hassanpour, Amir / Skutnabb-Kangas. Tove. eds. 2012. The Kurdish Linguistic Landscape: Vitality. Linguicide and Resistance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217.
  • Sheyholislami. Jaffer. 2011. Kurdish identity, discourse and new media. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Sonntag, Selma K / Cardinal, L. 2015. State traditions and language regimes: A historical institutionalism approach to language policy. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, European and Regional Studies. 8/1: 5-21.
  • Tollefson, James. 2006. Critical theory in language policy. In: Thomas Ricento. ed. An introduction to language policy: Theory and method. Oxford. Blackwell: 42-59.
  • White. Paul. 1991. Geographical aspects of minority language situations in Italy. In: Collin H. Williams, ed. Linguistic minorities, society, and territory. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters: 44-65.
  • Wright, Sue. 2007. The right to speak one’s own language. Reflections on practice. Language Policy. 6, 323-330.

Details

Primary Language Kurdi
Subjects Linguistics
Journal Section Translation
Authors

Jaffer SHEYHOLİSLAMİ This is me
Carleton University
0000-0002-3425-5592
Canada

Translators

Mehmet YONAT

Publication Date September 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2

Cite

APA Sheyholislami, J. (2021). Statûya Zimên û Polîtîkayên Partîyan li Kurdistana Iraqê. Mînakên Guhertoyên Behdînî û Hewramî (M. Yonat, Trans.) . The Journal of Mesopotamian Studies , 6 (2) , 303-316 . DOI: 10.35859/jms.2021.993360


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