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Beyond Mother Language: Kurdish as a Regional and Indigenous Language

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, 245 - 265, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.35859/jms.2021.963478

Abstract

The association between language and territory is particularly significant in terms of indigenousness. Therefore, the argument of this paper is to examine this aspect of the Kurdish language through the interpretation of the Kurdish political movement in Turkey based on self-identification, an essential component of indigeneity. Since the 1990s, the Kurdish political movement has been demanding mother-tongue rights with the growing grassroots support. This study examines pro-Kurdish political party programs, statements/press releases, and interviews with deputies of the HDP, current parliamentary party. The article explores acquiring Kurdish as a native language by Kurds and non-Kurds in the region, mainly through mothers, homes, and the community environment. The process of acquiring the Kurdish language varies according to how individuals interact with the local Kurdish community, such as marrying into Kurdish families, systematic settlement, and growing up in the region. Whilst Kurdish is regarded as the mother language of the Kurds by Kurds and non-Kurds members of the Kurdish political movement in Turkey, this article draws further attention to the regional and local aspects of Kurdish, including its natural learning process of non-Kurds within the region.

References

  • Alaska Native Knowledge Network. (2001). Guidelines for strengthening indigenous languages. Assembly of Alaska Native Educators Anchorage.http://ankn.uaf.edu/Publications/Language.pdf
  • Alkadry, M. G. (2002). Reciting Colonial Scripts: Colonialism, Globalisation and Democracy in the Decolonized Middle East’, Administrative Theory & Praxis, 24(4), 739-762.
  • Beckett, G. H., and MacPherson, S. (2005). Researching the Impact of English on Minority and Indigenous Languages in Non-Western Contexts. TESOL Quarterly, 39(2), 299–307.
  • Beşikçi, İ. (1977). Kürtlerin 'mecburi iskânı. Komal.
  • Billig, M. (1995). Banal Nationalism, London: SAGE.
  • Blum, S., & Hassanpour, A. (1996). “The morning of freedom rose up”: Kurdish popular song and the exigencies of cultural survival.Popular Music, 15(3), 325–43.
  • Bozkurt, A. 2020. “The Historical Roots of The Mhallami Arabs In Turkey As A Subject Of Debate.” Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi / The Journal of International Social Research 13(70).
  • Barcham, M. (2000). (De) Constructing the Politics of Indigeneity, in Ivision, D., Patton, P. and Sanders, W. (Eds.) Political Theory and The Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Cambridge University Press, 137-151.
  • Canessa, A. (2007). Who is indigenous? Self-identification, indigeneity, and claims to justice in contemporary Bolivia.Urban Anthropology and Studies of Cultural Systems and World Economic Development, 36(3), 195–237.
  • Council of Europe (2009). Regional, minority and migration languages, Language Policy Division. Retrieved September 18, 2021, www.coe.int/lang
  • Degawan, M. (2020). Indigenous languages: Knowledge and hope. UNESCO Courier.https://en.unesco.org/courier/2019-1/indigenous-languages-knowledge-and-hope
  • De la Cadena, M. (2010). Indigenous cosmopolitics in the Andes: Conceptual reflections beyond “politics.” Cultural Anthropology,25(2), 334–370.
  • Eppler, E. and Benedkt, J. (2017). A perceptual dialectological approach to linguistic variation and spatial analysis of Kurdish varieties, Journal of Linguistic Geography. 109–130.
  • Field, F. (2011). Bilingualism in the USA: The Case of the Chicano-Latino Community. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Fishman, J. (1972). A. Language and nationalism: Two integrative essays. Newbury House Publishers.
  • Gambetti, Z. (2010). Decolonizing Diyarbakir: Culture, identity and the struggle toappropriate urban space.InK. A. Ali, & M. Rieker (Eds.), Comparing cities: The Middle East and south Asia (pp. 95–127). Oxford University Press.
  • Guenther, M., Kenrick, J., Kuper, A., Evie Plaice, E., Thuen, T., Patrick Wolfe, P., Zips, W. and Barnard, A. (2006). The Concept of Indigeneity’, Social Anthropology, 14(1), 17-32.
  • Harris, L. (2008). Postcolonialism, Post development, and Ambivalent Spaces of Difference in Southeastern Turkey’, Geoforum, 39, 1698-1708.
  • Hassanpour, A. (1992). Nationalism and language in Kurdistan 1918–1985. Edwin Mellon Press.
  • Hassanpour, A., Sheyholislami, J. and Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2012). Introduction. Kurdish: Linguicide, resistance and hope, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217, 1-18.
  • Hassanpour, A. (1999). Modernity, popular sovereignty and the Kurdish question: a rejoinder to Argun, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 19(1),105-114.
  • Heper, M. (2007) The State and Kurds in Turkey: The Question of Assimilation., UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Hicks, J. (2004) ‘On the Application of Theories of ‘Internal Colonialism’ to Inuit Societies’ the Annual Conference of the Canadian Political Science Association, Winnipeg. Available at: https://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2004/Hicks.pdf (Accessed 35 May 2018).
  • Hind, R. J. (1984) ‘The Internal Colonial Concept’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 26(3), 543-568.
  • Hobsbawm, E. (1996). Language, culture, and national identity.Social Research,63(4), 1065–1080.
  • Hodgson, D. L. (2002). Introduction: Comparative perspectives on the indigenous rights movement in Africa and the Americas. American Anthropologist, 104(4),1037–049.
  • Işık, G. and Güneş, M. (2016). Transferring the heritage of multiculturalism to future: Mardin sample, TÜCAUM VIII. Geography Symposium. Retrieved September 19, 2021, http://tucaum.ankara.edu.tr/tucaum-viii-cografya-sempozyumu/
  • Houston, C. (2009).An Anti-History of a Non-People: Kurds, Colonialism, and Nationalism in the History of Anthropology, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 15(1),19-35.
  • Kendal, M. N. (1980). Kurdistan in Turkey. InG. Chailand (Ed.), People Without A Country: The Kurds and Kurdistan. Zed Press.
  • Kingsbury, B. (2008). Indigenous peoples in international law: A constructivist approach to the Asian controversy. In C. Erni (Ed.), The concept of indigenous peoples in Asia: A resource book(103–160).International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
  • Kroon, S. (2003). Mother tongue and mother tongue education. In J. Bourne & E. Reid (Eds.), Language education:World yearbook of education(pp. 35–48).Kogan.
  • Lave, J., and Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • MacKay, F. (2002) A Guide to Indigenous Peoples’ Rights in the International Labour Organization, Programme Forest Peoples Programme. Retrieved September 17, 2021, https://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2010/09/iloguideiprightsjul02eng.pdf
  • Martins, P. H. (2018). Internal colonialism, postcolonial criticism and social theory. Revue du MAUSS permanent.http://www.journaldumauss.net/?Internal-Colonialism-Postcolonial-Criticism-and-Social-Theory
  • McDermott, R. (1993). The acquisition of a child by a learning disability. Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context. In J. Lave & S. Chaiklin (Eds.), (269-305). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  • McLaughlin, J., Whatman, S.,Ross, R., & Katona, M. (2012). Indigenous knowledge and effective parent–school partnerships: Issues and insights. In J. Phillips and J. Lampert (Eds.),Introductory Indigenous Studies in Education: Reflection and the Importance of Knowing, 2nd ed.(178–195). Pearson EducationAustralia.
  • Morsink, J. (1999). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting, and Intent. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Nor, N.M. and Ab Rashid, R. (2018). A review of theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition, Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 39(1), 161-167.
  • Onar, N. F., Liu, J. H. and Wodward, M. (2014). Critical junctures? Complexity and the post-colonial nation-state, International Journal of Intercultural Studies, 43(A), 22-34.
  • Owolabi, T. O. and Nurudeen, N. A. (2020). Indigenous Language Media and Communication for Health Purposes in the Digital Age. In K. Oyesomi, & A. Salawu (Ed.), Emerging Trends in Indigenous Language Media, Communication, Gender, and Health (123-145). United States: IGI Global.
  • Pasikowska-Schnass, M. (2017). Regional and minority languages in the European Union, EPRS | European Parliamentary Research Service European Parliament. Retrieved September 17, 2021, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/EPRS/EPRS-Briefing-589794-Regional-minority-languages-EU-FINAL.pdf
  • Quattrini, S. (2019). A rights-based framework for minority and indigenous languages in Africa: From endangerment to revitalization, Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved September 16, 2021, https://minorityrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/MRG_Brief_LangRights_2019.pdf
  • Roy, A.(2008). Postcolonial theory and law: A critical introduction.Adelaide Law Review,29(½), 315–57.
  • Sarivaara,E., Maatta, K., and Uusiautti, S. (2013). Who Is Indigenous? Definitions Of Indigeneity, PROCEEDINGS: 1st Eurasian Multidisciplinary Forum. Retrieved September 19, 2021,http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.678.8804&rep=rep1&type=pdf#page=379
  • Sidal, S. (2019). Türkiye'de Kürtçe Anadilde Eğitim Hareketi. Yeni Toplumsal Hareketler Bağlamında Türkiye'De Anadilde Eğitim Talepleri: TZP Kurdi Örneği.https://www.academia.edu/43456604/T%C3%BCrkiyede_K%C3%BCrt%C3%A7e_Anadilde_E%C4%9Fitim_Hareketi
  • Skutnabb-Kangas, T. and Bucak, S. (1995). Killing a mother tongue – how the Kurds are deprived of linguistic human rights. In Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove and Phillipson, Robert (eds.), Linguistic Human Rights. Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination, (347-370). De Gruyter Mouton.
  • Skutnabb-Kangass, T. (2005). Linguistic Genocide. In Dinah L. Shelton (Ed.), Encyclopedia Of Genocide And Crimes Against Humanity. (653-654). Thomson Gale.
  • Sosyo Politik Saha Araştırmaları Merkezi (2020). Doğu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölge İllerinde Anadil Kullanimi Araştirmasi. Retrieved September 20, 2021, https://sahamerkezi.org/dogu-ve-guneydogu-anadolu-bolge-illerinde-anadil-kullanimi-arastirmasi/
  • Taş, L. (2013). One state, plural options: Kurds in the UK.The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law,45(23), 167–189.
  • Tekdemir, O. (2016). Politics of the Turkish Conflict: The Kurdish Issue.E-International Relations,1–6. https://www.e-ir.info/2016/04/15/politics-of-the-turkish-conflict-the-kurdish-issue/
  • Tekdemir, O. (2018). The social construction of ‘many Kurdishnesses’: Mapping sub-identities of ‘EU-ising’ Kurdish politics, Ethnicities, 19(5), 876-900.
  • Trigger, D.S. & Dalley, C. (2010). Negotiating Indigeneity: Culture, Identity, and Politics, Reviews in Anthropology, 39(1), 46-65.
  • UNESCO (2021). Upcoming Decade of Indigenous Languages (2022 – 2032) to focus on Indigenous language users’ human rights. Retrieved September 17, 2021, https://en.unesco.org/news/upcoming-decade-indigenous-languages-2022-2032-focus-indigenous-language-users-human-rights
  • Üngör, U. U. (2009). Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913-1950. https://pure.uva.nl/ws/files/867109/65674_thesis.pdf
  • Xypolia, I.(2016). Racist aspects of modern Turkish nationalism.Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies,18(2), 111–124.
  • Wodak, R. and Meyer, M. (2016). Methods Of Critical Discourse Analysis. 3rd edn. London · Thousand Oaks · New Delhi: SAGE Publications.
  • Yeğen, M. (2004). Citizenship and ethnicity in Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies, 40(6), 51–66.
  • Yeğen, M. (2015). The Kurdish peace process in Turkey: Genesis, evolution and prospects. Working Paper, Global Turkey in Europe11, 2–15.
  • Zeydanlioglu, Wt. (2012). Turkey’s Kurdish language policy.International Journal of the Sociology of Language,217, 99–125.

Anadilin Ötesinde: Bölgesel ve Yerli Bir Dil Olarak Kürtçe

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, 245 - 265, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.35859/jms.2021.963478

Abstract

Dil ve bölge arasındaki ilişki özellikle yerlilik kavramı açısından kritik bir önem teşkil etmektedir. Dolayısıyla, bu makalenin argümanı, Kürt dilinin bu yönünü yerliliğin temel bir bileşeni olan öz-tanımlama presibine dayalı olarak Türkiye’deki Kürt siyasi hareketinin yorumu aracılığıyla incelemektir. 1990'lardan bu yana Kürt siyasi hareketi artan taban desteği ile anadil haklarını talep ediyor. Bu çalışmada Kürt haklarının tanıması doğrultusunda siyaset yapan siyasi parti programları, açıklamalar/basın açıklamaları ve mevcut meclis partisi HDP milletvekilleriyle yapılan görüşmeler incelenmektedir. Makale, anne, ev ve toplum ortamının bölgedeki Kürtler ve Kürt olmayanlar tarafından Kürtçe'nin anadil olarak edinilmesindekı rolünü araştırıyor. Kürt dilini edinme süreci, bireylerin Kürt aileleriyle evlenme, sistematik yerleşme ve bölgede büyüme gibi yerel Kürt toplumuyla nasıl etkileşime girdiğine göre değişmektedir. Kürtçe, Kürtler ve Türkiye'deki Kürt siyasi hareketinin Kürt olmayan üyeleri tarafından Kürtlerin ana dili olarak kabul edilirken, buna ek olarak, bu makale daha çok Kürtçe'nin bölgesel ve yerel bir dil olmasına ve bölgedeki Kürt olmayanların da Kürtçeyi doğal öğrenme sürecine dikkat çekmektedir.

References

  • Alaska Native Knowledge Network. (2001). Guidelines for strengthening indigenous languages. Assembly of Alaska Native Educators Anchorage.http://ankn.uaf.edu/Publications/Language.pdf
  • Alkadry, M. G. (2002). Reciting Colonial Scripts: Colonialism, Globalisation and Democracy in the Decolonized Middle East’, Administrative Theory & Praxis, 24(4), 739-762.
  • Beckett, G. H., and MacPherson, S. (2005). Researching the Impact of English on Minority and Indigenous Languages in Non-Western Contexts. TESOL Quarterly, 39(2), 299–307.
  • Beşikçi, İ. (1977). Kürtlerin 'mecburi iskânı. Komal.
  • Billig, M. (1995). Banal Nationalism, London: SAGE.
  • Blum, S., & Hassanpour, A. (1996). “The morning of freedom rose up”: Kurdish popular song and the exigencies of cultural survival.Popular Music, 15(3), 325–43.
  • Bozkurt, A. 2020. “The Historical Roots of The Mhallami Arabs In Turkey As A Subject Of Debate.” Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi / The Journal of International Social Research 13(70).
  • Barcham, M. (2000). (De) Constructing the Politics of Indigeneity, in Ivision, D., Patton, P. and Sanders, W. (Eds.) Political Theory and The Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Cambridge University Press, 137-151.
  • Canessa, A. (2007). Who is indigenous? Self-identification, indigeneity, and claims to justice in contemporary Bolivia.Urban Anthropology and Studies of Cultural Systems and World Economic Development, 36(3), 195–237.
  • Council of Europe (2009). Regional, minority and migration languages, Language Policy Division. Retrieved September 18, 2021, www.coe.int/lang
  • Degawan, M. (2020). Indigenous languages: Knowledge and hope. UNESCO Courier.https://en.unesco.org/courier/2019-1/indigenous-languages-knowledge-and-hope
  • De la Cadena, M. (2010). Indigenous cosmopolitics in the Andes: Conceptual reflections beyond “politics.” Cultural Anthropology,25(2), 334–370.
  • Eppler, E. and Benedkt, J. (2017). A perceptual dialectological approach to linguistic variation and spatial analysis of Kurdish varieties, Journal of Linguistic Geography. 109–130.
  • Field, F. (2011). Bilingualism in the USA: The Case of the Chicano-Latino Community. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Fishman, J. (1972). A. Language and nationalism: Two integrative essays. Newbury House Publishers.
  • Gambetti, Z. (2010). Decolonizing Diyarbakir: Culture, identity and the struggle toappropriate urban space.InK. A. Ali, & M. Rieker (Eds.), Comparing cities: The Middle East and south Asia (pp. 95–127). Oxford University Press.
  • Guenther, M., Kenrick, J., Kuper, A., Evie Plaice, E., Thuen, T., Patrick Wolfe, P., Zips, W. and Barnard, A. (2006). The Concept of Indigeneity’, Social Anthropology, 14(1), 17-32.
  • Harris, L. (2008). Postcolonialism, Post development, and Ambivalent Spaces of Difference in Southeastern Turkey’, Geoforum, 39, 1698-1708.
  • Hassanpour, A. (1992). Nationalism and language in Kurdistan 1918–1985. Edwin Mellon Press.
  • Hassanpour, A., Sheyholislami, J. and Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2012). Introduction. Kurdish: Linguicide, resistance and hope, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217, 1-18.
  • Hassanpour, A. (1999). Modernity, popular sovereignty and the Kurdish question: a rejoinder to Argun, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 19(1),105-114.
  • Heper, M. (2007) The State and Kurds in Turkey: The Question of Assimilation., UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Hicks, J. (2004) ‘On the Application of Theories of ‘Internal Colonialism’ to Inuit Societies’ the Annual Conference of the Canadian Political Science Association, Winnipeg. Available at: https://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2004/Hicks.pdf (Accessed 35 May 2018).
  • Hind, R. J. (1984) ‘The Internal Colonial Concept’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 26(3), 543-568.
  • Hobsbawm, E. (1996). Language, culture, and national identity.Social Research,63(4), 1065–1080.
  • Hodgson, D. L. (2002). Introduction: Comparative perspectives on the indigenous rights movement in Africa and the Americas. American Anthropologist, 104(4),1037–049.
  • Işık, G. and Güneş, M. (2016). Transferring the heritage of multiculturalism to future: Mardin sample, TÜCAUM VIII. Geography Symposium. Retrieved September 19, 2021, http://tucaum.ankara.edu.tr/tucaum-viii-cografya-sempozyumu/
  • Houston, C. (2009).An Anti-History of a Non-People: Kurds, Colonialism, and Nationalism in the History of Anthropology, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 15(1),19-35.
  • Kendal, M. N. (1980). Kurdistan in Turkey. InG. Chailand (Ed.), People Without A Country: The Kurds and Kurdistan. Zed Press.
  • Kingsbury, B. (2008). Indigenous peoples in international law: A constructivist approach to the Asian controversy. In C. Erni (Ed.), The concept of indigenous peoples in Asia: A resource book(103–160).International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
  • Kroon, S. (2003). Mother tongue and mother tongue education. In J. Bourne & E. Reid (Eds.), Language education:World yearbook of education(pp. 35–48).Kogan.
  • Lave, J., and Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • MacKay, F. (2002) A Guide to Indigenous Peoples’ Rights in the International Labour Organization, Programme Forest Peoples Programme. Retrieved September 17, 2021, https://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2010/09/iloguideiprightsjul02eng.pdf
  • Martins, P. H. (2018). Internal colonialism, postcolonial criticism and social theory. Revue du MAUSS permanent.http://www.journaldumauss.net/?Internal-Colonialism-Postcolonial-Criticism-and-Social-Theory
  • McDermott, R. (1993). The acquisition of a child by a learning disability. Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context. In J. Lave & S. Chaiklin (Eds.), (269-305). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  • McLaughlin, J., Whatman, S.,Ross, R., & Katona, M. (2012). Indigenous knowledge and effective parent–school partnerships: Issues and insights. In J. Phillips and J. Lampert (Eds.),Introductory Indigenous Studies in Education: Reflection and the Importance of Knowing, 2nd ed.(178–195). Pearson EducationAustralia.
  • Morsink, J. (1999). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting, and Intent. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Nor, N.M. and Ab Rashid, R. (2018). A review of theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition, Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 39(1), 161-167.
  • Onar, N. F., Liu, J. H. and Wodward, M. (2014). Critical junctures? Complexity and the post-colonial nation-state, International Journal of Intercultural Studies, 43(A), 22-34.
  • Owolabi, T. O. and Nurudeen, N. A. (2020). Indigenous Language Media and Communication for Health Purposes in the Digital Age. In K. Oyesomi, & A. Salawu (Ed.), Emerging Trends in Indigenous Language Media, Communication, Gender, and Health (123-145). United States: IGI Global.
  • Pasikowska-Schnass, M. (2017). Regional and minority languages in the European Union, EPRS | European Parliamentary Research Service European Parliament. Retrieved September 17, 2021, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/EPRS/EPRS-Briefing-589794-Regional-minority-languages-EU-FINAL.pdf
  • Quattrini, S. (2019). A rights-based framework for minority and indigenous languages in Africa: From endangerment to revitalization, Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved September 16, 2021, https://minorityrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/MRG_Brief_LangRights_2019.pdf
  • Roy, A.(2008). Postcolonial theory and law: A critical introduction.Adelaide Law Review,29(½), 315–57.
  • Sarivaara,E., Maatta, K., and Uusiautti, S. (2013). Who Is Indigenous? Definitions Of Indigeneity, PROCEEDINGS: 1st Eurasian Multidisciplinary Forum. Retrieved September 19, 2021,http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.678.8804&rep=rep1&type=pdf#page=379
  • Sidal, S. (2019). Türkiye'de Kürtçe Anadilde Eğitim Hareketi. Yeni Toplumsal Hareketler Bağlamında Türkiye'De Anadilde Eğitim Talepleri: TZP Kurdi Örneği.https://www.academia.edu/43456604/T%C3%BCrkiyede_K%C3%BCrt%C3%A7e_Anadilde_E%C4%9Fitim_Hareketi
  • Skutnabb-Kangas, T. and Bucak, S. (1995). Killing a mother tongue – how the Kurds are deprived of linguistic human rights. In Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove and Phillipson, Robert (eds.), Linguistic Human Rights. Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination, (347-370). De Gruyter Mouton.
  • Skutnabb-Kangass, T. (2005). Linguistic Genocide. In Dinah L. Shelton (Ed.), Encyclopedia Of Genocide And Crimes Against Humanity. (653-654). Thomson Gale.
  • Sosyo Politik Saha Araştırmaları Merkezi (2020). Doğu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölge İllerinde Anadil Kullanimi Araştirmasi. Retrieved September 20, 2021, https://sahamerkezi.org/dogu-ve-guneydogu-anadolu-bolge-illerinde-anadil-kullanimi-arastirmasi/
  • Taş, L. (2013). One state, plural options: Kurds in the UK.The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law,45(23), 167–189.
  • Tekdemir, O. (2016). Politics of the Turkish Conflict: The Kurdish Issue.E-International Relations,1–6. https://www.e-ir.info/2016/04/15/politics-of-the-turkish-conflict-the-kurdish-issue/
  • Tekdemir, O. (2018). The social construction of ‘many Kurdishnesses’: Mapping sub-identities of ‘EU-ising’ Kurdish politics, Ethnicities, 19(5), 876-900.
  • Trigger, D.S. & Dalley, C. (2010). Negotiating Indigeneity: Culture, Identity, and Politics, Reviews in Anthropology, 39(1), 46-65.
  • UNESCO (2021). Upcoming Decade of Indigenous Languages (2022 – 2032) to focus on Indigenous language users’ human rights. Retrieved September 17, 2021, https://en.unesco.org/news/upcoming-decade-indigenous-languages-2022-2032-focus-indigenous-language-users-human-rights
  • Üngör, U. U. (2009). Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913-1950. https://pure.uva.nl/ws/files/867109/65674_thesis.pdf
  • Xypolia, I.(2016). Racist aspects of modern Turkish nationalism.Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies,18(2), 111–124.
  • Wodak, R. and Meyer, M. (2016). Methods Of Critical Discourse Analysis. 3rd edn. London · Thousand Oaks · New Delhi: SAGE Publications.
  • Yeğen, M. (2004). Citizenship and ethnicity in Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies, 40(6), 51–66.
  • Yeğen, M. (2015). The Kurdish peace process in Turkey: Genesis, evolution and prospects. Working Paper, Global Turkey in Europe11, 2–15.
  • Zeydanlioglu, Wt. (2012). Turkey’s Kurdish language policy.International Journal of the Sociology of Language,217, 99–125.

Ji Zimanê Dayîkê Wêdetir: Kurdî Wekî Zimanekî Herêmî û Xwecih

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, 245 - 265, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.35859/jms.2021.963478

Abstract

Peywendîya di navbera ziman û herêmê de xisûsen di peywenda çemka xwecihîbûnê de giringiyeke xwe ya hesas heye. Loma armanca vê gotarê ew e ku hêla xwecihîbûna Kurdî, li ser esasê xwepênasekirinê ku yek ji pêkarên yekûna xwecihiyê ye digel şiroveya tevgera siyasî ya Kurd a li Tirkiyê vekole. Ji salên 1990î û pê ve ye ku tevgera siyasî ya Kurd digel piştgiriyeke xurt a girseya xwe talebkarê mafên zimanê dayîkê ye. Di vê xebatê de li dor peywenda nasîna mafên Kurdan, bername û daxuyaniyên hizbên sîyasî yên çalak û hevdîtinên bi parlemanterên HDP re hatine nirxandin. Gotar li ser rola dayîk, mal û civakê di bidestxistina zimanê dayîkê (Kurdî) de radiweste ku gelo vê rolê çi karîgerî li Kurd an kesên ne Kurd ên li herêmê kiriye. Pêvajoya bidestxistina zimanê Kurdî, li gorî çend pêkarên peywendîdanînê ya bi Kurdan re ji hev cuda dibe ku ev jî zewicîna bi malbatên Kurd re, bicihbûna sîstematîk a li herêmê û avakirina derdoreke fireh a li herêmê ye. Kurdî li cem Kurdan û li cem kesayetên ne Kurd ên di nav tevgera sîyasî ya Kurdan de weku zimanê dayîkê tê pejirandin. Ji vê yekê wêdetir ev gotar balê dikêşe ser wê yekê ku digel Kurdî zimanekî xwecih ya herêmî be jî kesên ne Kurd ên li herêmê bi awayekî siruştî û hêsan fêrê wê dibin.

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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Anthropology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Aynur UNAL (Primary Author)
0000-0002-2880-3388
United Kingdom

Publication Date September 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2

Cite

APA Unal, A. (2021). Beyond Mother Language: Kurdish as a Regional and Indigenous Language . The Journal of Mesopotamian Studies , 6 (2) , 245-265 . DOI: 10.35859/jms.2021.963478


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